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It is a fundamental human desire to live in spaces that emanate beauty and creativity. However, creating beautiful spaces is a challenging task. To transform the emptiness of space into a homely, comfortable, or innovative space is no miserly activity and requires the vision of an artist. To have your living space speak in the language of aesthetics cannot be achieved arbitrarily. Simply combining two beautiful things is not enough to create an aesthetically pleasing ambience, rather it's a science based on well-defined principles. There are design principles in interior design that, when followed, can induce cohesiveness and anchor the room.
However, there is more to interior design than religiously following principles. By grounding the understanding of the elements of interior design, one can experiment with ideas and create unique designs that flatter the space and augment its allure.
A room designed according to principles in interior design will automatically catch the eye of the viewers as soon as they enter. These principles provide a foundation through which interior designer can build their styles and even experiment. A quick insight into the principles of interior design shall guide one to the basic elements of interior design.
Equilibrium is a rule of life. Anything in excess becomes a menace. The same principle of balance applies to interior design as well. There should be a proportionate presence of visual elements to prevent chaos. The balance of shape, colour, and texture must be maintained in order to create a holistic design. Balance can also be maintained with the help of patterns. A symmetrical design can give a semblance of balance. However, balance can even be found in asymmetry. It can be linear or radial as well.
A well-balanced room will emanate harmony when all the elements will act together in unison. Visual harmony can be meditative, a crucial element for the high demanding lives of the modern world. Harmony can impart peace to space and boost productivity which in return helps create a positive atmosphere in a space.
Proportion and scale
Proportion and scale are two ideas that are often confused with each other. Proportion refers to how one part of an object relates to another part. Scale, on the other hand, refers to the relation between two parts of an object or to the area where it is placed. The rule of the Golden Section was devised by the ancient Greeks to describe the perfect proportion and scale for design principles in interior design- the ratio of the larger section to the whole must be equal to the ratio of the smaller section to the larger section. This formula has been used for centuries to establish perfect proportion and scale in interior design to create the most satisfying designs. It is also a natural element in interior design because this proportion also exists in nature.
A photograph would look unappealing if all the elements of the landscape were given equal focus. A painter also needs to be mindful of the subject or elements that they wish to keep in focus in order to create impactful art. It is a basic design principle in interior design that any single entity should attract the most attention. Emphasis can be regulated through architectural additions like a large window, a fireplace, or built-in shelves. It can also be provided with the help of furniture and other decorative elements. A large couch, wooden bookshelf, or a masterpiece painting, all can be employed to place emphasis upon a particular spot and accentuate the interior design of the space.
Paints are the elements that can turn a blank canvas into a masterpiece when applied in meaningful strokes in alignment with the principles of painting. Similarly, design elements of interior design can be innovatively utilized to create spectacular interior aesthetics, keeping in mind the design principles in interior design. Following are the aspects of interior design which can be used to infuse magic on space by an intuitive, expert craftsperson.
Space is one of the most fundamental elements of any interior design project. Every future decision depends upon how one views the empty space around them and fills it with imaginative and exclusive designs. An aesthetically pleasing space can turn into a source of inspiration and productivity. Space is perceived under two broad categories- positive space and negative space. The space that has been utilized or is filled with furniture is known as positive space, while space that is empty is called negative space. One can play with the idea of these two subcategories to maneuver the key elements of interior design. It is upto the designer to visualize the end result and regulate the use of space accordingly.
Lines impart flow and expression to poetry and painting. They are also capable of emanating warmth or coldness. While straight lines exude a feeling of coldness, curvilinear lines are believed to be warmer. Lines can dramatically impact the overview of interior design as well. Lines can be dynamic, horizontal, or vertical. Horizontal lines pertain to furnishing materials like tables, chairs or others. Vertical lines are found with shelves, windows, doors or other tall structures. Dynamic lines are neither horizontal nor vertical and dramatize the interior design.
A quick formal analysis can become an interior designer's holy grail. What is the form of a room? It can be rectangular, square, circular or irregular. The shape of the room can be called its form. The room's furniture can also relate to the form of the room to instill harmony and rhythm. Square shapes are said to have a stronger impact while circular or rounded shapes are deemed soft. Especially in the twenty-first century, where living space is continually decreasing given the high population, the form of a room becomes an important factor in interior design.
Light is the primary source through which humans perceive the world around them. Light is how one interacts with the world and their own living space. Therefore, it is a key element of interior design. The ambience of a place is set by the amount of light and its direction. Light sources in interior design can be of two types- natural or artificial. Both types are essential for a space to remain habitable throughout the twenty-four hours of the day. The choice of furniture, ceiling design, or room color also depends upon the kind of lighting required for an area.
Color is the element of interior design that stands out the most. It covers the entirety of the space and draws utmost attention. Moreover, it has been scientifically proven that colors can shape one's perceptions and alter psychological states. There exists a separate domain of color psychology that analyses the effects of various colors on the human brain. While blue is pacifying, red can be passionate or symbolize rage, and green has become a metaphor for plants and thus radiates growth and positivity. A skilful understanding of colors is crucial for an interior designer to offer pioneering creativity. Various colors can be contrasted for visual appeal or one can also blend with complementing colors to create a balanced view.
Texture combines visual sensations with tactile sensations. It adds depth to the room and makes it more interesting. It also adds character to the room and makes it more personalized. Textures can also be categorized into two points- visual and actual. Visual textures do not have tactile components associated with them. These textures can only be felt by seeing, like marble. Actual textures have visual and tactile characteristics. It can be felt as well as seen. The texture is an element of interior design that can replenish a space and inject it with life.
Patterns are used to hook the viewer's interest in the space. Through repetition, patterns direct the line of sight of the viewer. They also help them to scan the entire space and anchor attention. Patterns can be interesting and intriguing and remain one such element in design that has a positive impact on human cognition.
Like all arts, interior designing is a work of intuition. But it also has a grounding in scientific principles of light, color, shapes, etc which makes it science as well. Understanding and following the elements of interior design and principles, each element is crucial and cannot be substituted or ignored. The optimum utilization of these elements of interior design can happen when one is familiar with the design principles of interior design. Through patterns, one can maintain rhythm and make their space dynamic and alive. Harmony can be sought to ground the design and follow the fundamentals of pleasure lying in peace and calmness. A skilful and natural interior designer would be able to formulate the appropriate design by using the elements of interior design and implementing them according to the design principles of interior design. Such a design can make one feel as if they did not enter their room but a beautiful painting where they can live comfortably. Nevertheless, the field of interior design is a dynamic one. Lately, one can witness the more experimental design coming up. For example, the newly emerging lanes of cafes in metropolitan cities design their limited space with utmost creativity providing the perfect ambience to augment the culinary experience.
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